Why was the CPIA 1996 introduced?

Why was the CPIA 1996 introduced?

Law regulating criminal liability

The first transgenic crop in Argentina was glyphosate tolerant soybean.  It was approved and planted for the first time in 1996 and since then the area planted with transgenic crops, also called genetically modified (GM), has grown steadily. Another type of GM crops approved, and very rapidly adopted in Argentina, are insect resistant crops (Bt crops). There are even several GM crops that combine herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. With about 24 million hectares planted, representing 12-13% of the global GM crop area, Argentina is positioned as the world’s third largest producer of GM crops, after the United States and Brazil.

The adoption rate of transgenic crops is one of the highest in terms of adoption of new technologies in the Argentine agricultural sector, and even exceeds that observed with the incorporation of hybrids in corn cultivation. This indicates a high degree of satisfaction on the part of the farmer with respect to the benefits provided by biotechnology, which offers, in addition to lower costs, other advantages, such as greater flexibility in crop management, reduced use of insecticides, higher yields and better quality production. In addition, transgenic crops complement very well with conservation tillage practices, such as no-tillage, contributing to soil conservation, simplified management and reduced production costs.

Organic Law 1 1985 of May 5, 1985

Finland is one of the Nordic countries and, thanks mainly to its historical ties with them, maintains close relations with all of them (Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland). Finland belonged to the Kingdom of Sweden from the 11th century until 1809. Later it became an autonomous Grand Duchy annexed to Russia as a result of the Hamina peace treaty. In 1917, Finland finally became independent and, in 1919, enacted its first constitution.

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The number of asylum applications has increased enormously from 50 in 1988 to 3,634 in 1992. However, it would appear that this has largely been due to the Gulf War in 1990 and the crises in Somalia in 1952 and Yugoslavia since 1990, since when the number of applications has fallen to 849 in 1995. A similar situation of rise and fall of applications during the same period can be observed in many other EU Member States (5).

The employment rate (8) in 1994 was 56.5%, while the EU average was 58.2%. This relatively low employment rate stems from the recession that began in 1991. In 1990, the employment rate in Finland was 70.1%, while the EU average was 61%.

Law 5 200

Law 225 of 1995 introduced some amendments to Law 38 of 1989 and Law 179 of 1994, Organic Statute of the Budget, and in its Article 24 authorized the Government to compile the norms of the three aforementioned laws, without changing their wording or content;

This Decree compiles the norms of Laws 38 of 1989, 179 of 1994 and 225 of 1995 that make up the Organic Statute of the Budget. For methodological purposes, the sources of the compiled organic norms are informed at the end of each article of the Statute.

To the industrial and commercial companies of the State and the mixed economy companies under the regime of the former, the regulations expressly mentioning them will be applied. (Law 38/89, article 2, Law 179/94 article 1).

ARTICLE 6. BUDGET SYSTEM. It is constituted by a financial plan, by an annual operative plan of investments and by the annual budget of the Nation (Law 38/89, article 3, Law 179/94, article 55, paragraph 5).

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This plan will be in accordance with the National Investment Plan. The National Planning Department will prepare a regional and departmental report on the investment budget for discussion in the economic commissions of the Senate and House of Representatives (Law 38/89, Article 5, Law 179/94, Article 2).

Organic Law 1 1982

Royal Decree-Law 12/2017, of July 3, amending the revised text of the Intellectual Property Law, approved by Royal Legislative Decree 1/1996, of April 12, regarding the system of fair compensation for private copying.

In this regard, recent European and national judicial pronouncements interpreting Directive 2001/29/EC have rendered the current regulation of fair compensation for private copying null and void. However, the recognition of the limit to the right of reproduction for private copying remains in force. To the extent that, as indicated above, Directive 2001/29/EC requires the recognition of fair compensation when the aforementioned limit is recognized, it is necessary, in order to comply with EU law, to proceed with the urgent regulation of a new system that complies with European and national case law.

In general terms, the current model of fair compensation financed by the General State Budget is replaced by a model based on the payment of an amount to be paid by the manufacturers and distributors of reproduction equipment, devices and supports. It is a system, intended to be permanent, which responds in a balanced manner to the needs of consumers and of the different sectors involved, including the holders of intellectual property rights, and which provides for a fair compensation that complies with both European and national law.

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